Over 2,000 insurgents, among them leaders of the revolt, faced trial in Constantine, Algeria, where they were presented not as anti-colonial leaders but as petty criminals. Because most of the men hailed from noble families, however, the French were wary of sentencing them to death. Instead, they decided to exile the men to the farthest place imaginable: New Caledonia.
Ever since Napoleon disembarked at Alexandria, France has had a complicated relationship with North Africa and Islam. Over the centuries it has been marked by politics, power, betrayal and misunderstandings.
Algeria's 2019 revolution reinvigorated the Arab world. But a year and a half later, it has fallen prey to the same failures of the region's other movements for change. An essay detailing the rise and fall of the Hirak protest movement.