Ever since Napoleon disembarked at Alexandria, France has had a complicated relationship with North Africa and Islam. Over the centuries it has been marked by politics, power, betrayal and misunderstandings.
Algeria's 2019 revolution reinvigorated the Arab world. But a year and a half later, it has fallen prey to the same failures of the region's other movements for change. An essay detailing the rise and fall of the Hirak protest movement.