The main targets of these reports are usually apartment renters, people without permanent jobs, and pious Uyghurs including anyone who prays five times a day, grows facial hair or wears the hijab.
Muslims living all over the country find themselves enduring egregious violations of their rights, including draconian measures such as being forced to eat pork and drink alcohol and to shave their beards or remove their headscarves.
Ever since Napoleon disembarked at Alexandria, France has had a complicated relationship with North Africa and Islam. Over the centuries it has been marked by politics, power, betrayal and misunderstandings.
In the world of Islam, some philosophers went against religion. The secularist ideas that European scholars found in these thinkers’ writings shook both Muslim and Christian theologians.