Today, Turkish diaspora communities encompassing roughly 5.5 million people are spread across Europe, forming one of the continent’s largest migrant groups and the largest Muslim-majority community. But 60 years and at least four generations later, many people from the Turkish diaspora still feel like second-class citizens in Europe.
For Erdoğan, Turkish citizens in Austria as well as Germany constitute a “pool of voters for the AKP,” which he may need to draw upon in the 2023 presidential election given his declining popularity at home. But Erdogan is only able to draw on them because he is playing the kind of music Turks in Austria want to hear.
Calls within the EU to designate the Ülkü Ocaklari, also known by the moniker “Gray Wolves,” as a terrorist group are portrayed as a crackdown on Turkish far-right extremism. But it raises questions on broader issues about assimilation and inclusion of Turkish immigrants in Europe.
Adding to the fact that the message was sent after the mid-air bomb theatrics unfolded, the sought-for cease fire referenced in the email had already taken effect on Friday, two days before this communique was sent out.
Western prison systems still struggle to incarcerate notorious jihadists or ideologues. One major case was that of Abu Qatada, dubbed “Osama bin Laden’s right-hand man.”
Ever since Napoleon disembarked at Alexandria, France has had a complicated relationship with North Africa and Islam. Over the centuries it has been marked by politics, power, betrayal and misunderstandings.