Women were told breastfeeding was not enough, and as far as colonial administrations were concerned, milk had to be part of the nutrition plan for infants and children. Breastfeeding was discouraged and baby formulas were replacing much of infant rations. This was later heavily encouraged through aggressive marketing of baby formulas.
Exploring the legacy of Black Muslims in Americas and their centuries-long experience might help us better understand and address contemporary currents of Islamophobia, anti-Muslim bias and racism in the Americas.
Howard French’s new book, “Born in Blackness: Africa, Africans, and the Making of the Modern World, 1471 to the Second World War”, serves as a kind of elegy for the cataclysmic effect that contact with Europeans had on African societies, many of whose monarchs were enthusiastic participants in the slave trade before the Europeans arrived but with considerable differences to how it later became known.