James Ryan is the Associate Director of the Hagop Kevorkian Center for Near Eastern Studies at New York University. He is a trained historian of the Ottoman Empire and Republic of Turkey, with a Ph.D. and M.A. in History from the University of Pennsylvania and a B.A. in Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations from the University of Chicago.
Latest from James Ryan
The key to understanding liberalism’s consistent presence at the core of otherwise illiberal governance in Turkey lies in the history of another word, muhalefet. It’s the word at the center of Christine M. Philliou’s brilliant new book.