An Early Islamic Debate on Faith and Reason Is Worth Examining

Early Islamic Debate on Faith

For the Mutazila, both revelation and reason were from God — as independent paths to the same ethical truths. And the exact meaning of this duality needs to be better grasped, for it is relevant to some of the heated debates about religion, law and ethics held in the world of Islam today.

12th-Century Persian Philosopher Offers Insight Into Sufi Mysticism

A Mirror to Reflect God

Ayn al-Quḍāt’s brilliance as a Sufi master and philosopher comes through in his Arabic and Persian work. A translated excerpt from “The Essence of Reality” offers a rare and accessible opportunity to interact with the Sufi mysticism that influenced his era and the worldview of philosophers who came after him.